Particles

Particle NO (の) possession


1. 

の (NO) is used to express possession, often used to translate "my, your, his, her," etc.

それ中島(なかじま)さんかばんです
Sore wa nakajima san no kaban desu.
That is Mrs. Nakashima’s bag.

2. 

The particle の (NO) is used very often in Japanese to provide further information about something. の links the two elements using this structure: "Additional information + の + main element."

Depending on the sentence, the nature of the additional information varies. Here are several examples:

Attribute, property of an object

  • Plaid coat
    チェックのコート (chekku no kooto)
  • Green plate
    緑色のお皿 (midori iro no osara)

Function, usage

  • Cinema ticket (= for the cinema) 
    映画のチケット (eiga no chiketto)
  • DIY tools
    日曜大工の道具 (nichiyou daiku no dougu)

Geographical position

  • Churches in Germany
    ドイツの教会 (Doitsu no kyoukai)
  • Japanese inn in Kyoto
    京都の旅館 (Kyouto no ryokan)

Temporal information

  • The summer in two years
    再来年の夏 (sarainen no natsu)
  • The old currency
    昔のお金 (mukashi no okane)

Material

  • Leather gloves
    革の手袋 (kawa no tebukuro)
  • A wooden shelf
    木の棚 (ki no tana)
3. 

The particle の (NO) can appear in a structure expressing position and location. Examples:

  • ... の上に (NO UE NI) : on
  • ... の中に (NO NAKA NI) : in
  • etc.

(かね)金庫(きんこ)(なか)です
Okane wa kinko no naka desu.
The money is in the safe.

4. 

の (NO) is used when a noun follows another noun, and when both grouped together express the same thing.

こちら友人(ゆうじん)花子(はなこ)さんです
Kochira ga yuujin no hanako san desu.
This is my friend Hanako.

"Friend" and "Hanako" express the same idea (Hanako is my friend = my friend is Hanako).

5. 

の (NO) expresses the idea that something belongs to a category.

このテレビ番組(ばんぐみ)子供(こども)番組(ばんぐみ)です
Kono terebi bangumi wa kodomo no bangumi desu.
This TV program is a children’s program.

6. 

The particle が (GA) is used to indicate the subject in the sentence (not only). It can be replaced by の (NO) to form complex sentences with several clauses. This structure is often used to build sentences using "THAT". Mastering this usage of の is important to progress.

木村(きむら)さん(えら)んだ(ふく)(へん)でした
Kimura san no eranda fuku wa hen deshita.
The clothes that Mrs. Kimura chose looked strange.

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