Particles

Particle GA (が) subject / objects


1. 

が (GA) is used to mark the subject in the sentence. は (WA) can be used too when the subject is also the topic of the sentence.

携帯(けいたい)電話(でんわ)電池(でんち)()れている
Keitai denwa no denchi ga kirete iru.
The phone battery has run down. 

2. 

The particle が (GA) is often used with ある (ARU) or いる (IRU) to mark the object of the sentence. ARU is used with inanimate entities (car, food, plants, etc.), and IRU with animate entities (animals, humans).

NOTE: the polite forms for ARU and IRU are ARIMASU and IMASU.

(にわ)(ねこ)います
Niwa ni neko ga imasu.
There’s a cat in the garden.

3. 

After interrogative pronouns (what, who, etc.) in questions, が (GA) is always used, never は (WA) because if we ask a question about the element related to the question, it means that this element has not been identified yet. It's a new element introduced in the conversation.

(だれ)あなた友達(ともだち)です
Dare ga anata no tomodachi desu ka.
Who is your friend?

4. 

The particle が (GA) can be used with verbs or adjectives of desire, capacity, necessity, perception and emotion to mark the object.

DESIRE

(あたら)しい(くるま)()しいです
Atarashii kuruma ga hoshii desu.
I want a new car.

CAPACITY

佐藤(さとう)さんピアノ上手(じょうず)です
Satou san wa piano ga jouzu desu.
Mrs. Satou is good at playing the piano.

NECESSITY

(あめ)()っているので(かさ)必要(ひつよう)です
Ame ga futte iru node, kasa ga hitsuyou desu.
It’s raining, so I need an umbrella.

PERCEPTION

(そと)から(とり)()(ごえ)()こえます
Soto kara tori no nakigoe ga kikoemasu.
You can hear birds chirping (from) outside.

EMOTION

(わたし)てんぷら大好(だいす)です
Watashi wa tenpura ga daisuki desu.
I love tempura.

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