Particles

Particle MO (も)


1. 

The particle も (MO) is used to translate "too," "as well" (or "neither" in a negative sentence). 

NOTE:  can never follow the particle は (WA). In such a case,  disappears. For instance "me too" can't be translated as 私はも (watashi wa mo), but as 私 (watashi mo).

(わたし)(くるま)()っています山田(やまだ)さん(くるま)()っています
Watashi wa kuruma o motte imasu. Yamada san mo kuruma o motte imasu.
I have a car. Mr. Yamada has one, too.

(わたし)アクション映画(えいが)()ですホラー映画(えいが)()です
Watashi wa akushon eiga ga suki desu ga, horaa eiga mo suki desu.
I like action movies, but I like horror movies as well.

2. 

も (MO) can be used after each noun in an enumeration to express equality among them. It can be translated as "and... and...," or "neither... nor..." in a negative sentence.

斉藤(さいとう)さん(にく)(さかな)()べません
Saitou san wa niku mo sakana mo tabemasen.
Mrs. Saitou eats neither meat nor fish.

3. 

After a quantitative term in a negative structure, the particle も (MO) can be used to translate "not even..."

財布(さいふ)(なか)1000(せん)(えん)(はい)っていない
Saifu no naka ni wa sen en mo haitte inai.
In the wallet, there aren’t even 1,000 yen.

And after a quantitative term in an affirmative structure, the particle も expresses a maximal limit.

3分(さんぷん)あればこの問題(もんだい)()ける(おも)います
Sanpun mo areba kono mondai o tokeru to omoimasu.
I think that three minutes will be enough to solve this question.

4. 

After a quantity, も (MO) can be used to emphasize it, to give more weight to it, understating the high amount. Depending on the sentence, it could be translated as "as many as + quantity," "all of + quantity," "no less than + quantity."

(かれ)1000万(いっせんまん)(えん)貯金(ちょきん)ある
Kare ni wa issenman en mo chokin ga aru.
He has as much as 10,000,000 Yen of savings.

彼女(かのじょ)40本(よんじゅっぽん)()(とり)()べた
Kanojo wa yonjuppon mo yakitori o tabeta yo!!
She ate no fewer than 40 Yakitori brochettes!!

5. 

After the -TE form of a verb or -KUTE/DE for adjectives, も (MO) is used to mean “even though,” “even if," or "no matter how far/much" when an interrogative element is placed before.

飛行機(ひこうき)(おく)れて会議(かいぎ)()()いました
Hikouki ga okurete mo, kaigi ni maniaimashita.
Even though the flight was late, I was on time for the meeting.

いくら(のぼ)って(やま)頂上(ちょうじょう)()きませんでした
Ikura nobotte mo yama no choujou ni tsukimasen deshita.
No matter how high I climbed, I couldn’t reach the top of the mountain.

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