Particles

Particle NI (に)


1. 

に (NI) is used to locate a place (今会議室にいます, Ima kaigijitsu ni imasu, I'm in the meeting room now). 

に is frequently used after spatial locators "on, at, in, next to, etc."

(たまご)冷蔵庫(れいぞうこ)(なか)あります
Tamago wa reizouko no naka ni arimasu.
The eggs are in the refrigerator.

2. 

The particle に (NI) can be used to mark time, and can be used in many situations (hour, date, length, season, etc.).

午後(ごご)3時(さんじ)(はん)(えき)()いましょう
Gogo sanji han ni eki de aimashou.
Let’s meet at 3:30 PM at the station.

4月(しがつ)8日(ようか)結婚(けっこん)しました
Shigatsu youka ni kekkon shimashita.
I got married on April 8th.

3. 

Expresses a movement toward a precise destination. へ (pronounced "E" and not "HE" in that case) is also used, but focuses more on the direction than on the destination.

学校(がっこう)()きたくない
Gakkou ni ikitakunai.
I don’t want to go to school.

4. 

に (NI)  can be used after the conjunctive base of a verb to express the goal of an action. The conjunctive base is the one used with polite form -MASU (SHImasu, TABEmasu, etc.). This structure can be translated as "in order to do."

木村(きむら)さん(ほん)()図書館(としょかん)()きました
Kimura san wa hon o kari ni toshokan e ikimashita.
Mr. Kimura went to the library to borrow a book.

5. 

Designates an action's recipient in structures such as "to give to someone," "to send to someone," "to ask someone," "to teach someone," etc.

(おとうと)(いぬ)えさやりました
Otouto wa inu ni esa o yarimashita.
My younger brother gave food to the dog.

6. 

In the structure "noun + に (NI) + verb of movement," the particle に can denote an inward movement. For example, to enter a room, but also in a more abstract way (to participate, to enroll, to meet, etc.).

()らない(ひと)(わたし)(いえ)(はい)って()ました
Shiranai hito ga watashi no ie ni haitte kimashita!
A stranger has entered my house! 

山田(やまだ)さんそのプロジェクト参加(さんか)しました
Yamada san wa sono purojekuto ni sanka shimashita.
Mr. Yamada took part in this project.

7. 

に (NI) is used to indicate the result of a change, mainly with the verb "to become." There is an idea of movement from one state to a new state.

キャンディー()べて(した)緑色(みどりいろ)なった
Kyandii o tabete shita ga midoriiro ni natta.
I ate a candy and my tongue became green.

8. 

In a passive structure, に (NI) is used to indicate the agent, the grammatical element that is at the origin of the action (by him, by the train, etc.)

先週(せんしゅう)日曜日(にちようび)彼女(かのじょ)()られた
Senshuu no nichiyoubi kanojo ni furareta.
I was dumped by my girlfriend last Sunday.

9. 

In a causative sentence (to make someone do something), に (NI) is used to indicate the person who is made to do something.

上司(じょうし)(わたし)残業(ざんぎょう)させました
Joushi wa watashi ni zangyou sasemashita.
My superior had me do extra hours. 

Be careful, in a passive-causative structure (to be made to do something by someone) it can become complex to identify the right elements correctly, に is used to indicate the agent (the one is at the origin of the action).

(ちち)芝生(しばふ)()らされました
Chichi ni shibafu o karasaremashita.
I was made to mow the lawn by my father.

10. 

に (NI) introduces the information on which an action is based. It can often be translated as "according to, based on, etc."

税金(ぜいきん)収入(しゅうにゅう)(もと)づいて()められる
Zeikin wa shuunyuu ni motozuite kimerareru.
Taxes are calculated based on the revenue.

11. 

に (NI) can be used to make an enumeration of elements usually in a written style. When speaking, it's more common to use the particle と (TO) or や (YA) instead.

松田(まつだ)さん(いぬ)(ねこ)ウサギ()っています
Matsuda san wa inu ni neko ni usagi o katte imasu.
Mr. Matsuda has a dog, a cat and a rabbit.

12. 

に (NI) is used to indicate the basis for a comparison, the criterion on which the comparison is built.

ジョンさん(かあ)さん()いる
Jon san wa okaasan ni nite iru.
John looks like his mother.

4人(よにん)1人(ひとり)(ひと)アレルギー(くる)しんでいます
Yonin ni hitori no hito ga arerugii de kurushinde imasu.
One person out of four is suffering from allergies.

13. 

に (NI) is used to emphasize the meaning of a verb when using the following structure: "Verb (conjunctive base) + に + Verb."

()()べた
Tabe ni tabeta!
I ate a lot !

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